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Comprehensive Gemstone Information


Sapphire - The Most Popular Colored Gemstone


Sapphire has long been associated with Myanmar (Burma), Sri Lanka and India. It is also found in Australia, Africa, Cambodia, Brazil, and in the United States. The most highly prized Sapphire is the cornflower blue stone from Kashmir. The original source for these sapphires have been depleted and Kashmir sapphires are almost never seen in today’s market.

The classical sources of quality sapphires have been the Mogok Stone Tract in Upper Burma and the gem fields of Sri Lanka. Burmese and Ceylon sapphires get premium price. Heating colorless and very pale blue sapphires to high temperatures is often done to give them an intense blue color. This treatment can also improve the clarity of the stones by removing tiny inclusions.

Scientific Description

Sapphires and rubies are closely related. They both trace their lineage to corundum. The iron pigment in the corundum makes sapphire blue, while the chrome element in rubies makes them red. Corundum gemstones are the second hardest of the most precious of gemstones.

Sapphire Varieties

Sapphires are identical in every attribute to ruby, except for one key component - their color. Sapphires are found in an assortment of colors that range the entire spectrum. Sapphires are broadly divided into two groups:

Sapphires - Blue sapphires only.

Fancy Sapphires - Sapphires of all other colors.

The word sapphire, stated without a prefix, implies blue sapphires only. Sapphires of all other colors are assigned a color prefix (e.g. pink sapphires, yellow sapphires, purple sapphires etc.) or are collectively termed “Fancy Sapphires.”

Blue Sapphires

This is the most popular color of the sapphire family. Sapphire comes in a wide range of blue colors. With the exception of the very rare padparadscha sapphires, blue sapphires are the most desirable and expensive of the entire sapphire family.

The blues in sapphire can range from light pastel blues at one end to the midnight blue at the other end. The most prized and beautiful blue sapphire colors sit in the middle of the blue-color range. The rare and captivating cornflower blues offer captivating beauty with an unbeatable color.

Padparadsha Sapphires

Sapphires that combine the three colors of pink, purple and orange in one gem can resemble the famed and beautiful lotus flower known to the Ceylonese (modern day Sri Lanka) as “padparadsha”. Padparadsha sapphires are so rare and beautiful that they are highly prized and valued by gem collectors.

Padparadsha Sapphires are the most expensive of all fancy sapphires. The prices can reach many thousands of dollars per Carat. Padparadsha Sapphire jewelry has become extremely popular in recent times. (See also the controversial sapphire.)

Pink Sapphires

Pink Sapphires have colors that range from pastel pink shades to that approaching the hot pinks. Pink sapphires are often used with blue sapphires to make interesting jewelry displaying bright, colorful but harmonious contrasts within a single piece of jewelry.

Yellow Sapphires

The colors in yellow sapphire range from pleasing butter like colors to intensely beautiful canary yellows. Yellow sapphires are frequently found in large crystal sizes.

Purple Sapphires

Purple sapphires display rich purple-pink colors reminiscent of orchids. They are prized by collectors.

Green Sapphires

Green sapphires display a range of green hues, from olive green through to wine bottle like greens. Green sapphires are the least demanded of the sapphire family.

Star Sapphires

Star sapphires are coveted for their beautiful and mysterious optical effects. These sapphires have tiny inclusions of rutile needles. They  exhibit an optical property called asterism.
When viewed in light these exhibit a beautiful star shaped effect. Star sapphires usually have six ray stars, but twelve ray stars are also known. The stars are seen silently gliding across the gemstone’s surface. Star sapphires have traditionally been the most popular of all star gemstones.

Color Change Sapphires

A rare variety of sapphire, known as color changing sapphire, exhibits different colors in different light. A color change sapphire is blue in natural light, and violet in artificial light. A similar effect is also seen in alexandrite.

Controversial Sapphires

These sapphires sometimes appear identical to the rare, costly and beautiful padparadscha sapphires. They are created by the addition of a catalyst at extremely high temperatures. They are sometimes referred to as "diffusion sapphires."

Regardless of their color origin, these gems exhibit rare and beautiful colors similar to the padparadsha lotus flowers, with pinks, purples and oranges radiating from the body of a single jewel.

Intense medium dark blue is the most sought after color for Blue Sapphires. However, very fine Sapphires are extremely rare. Sri Lanka, Cambodia and Burma produce very fine pure Blue Sapphires. Cambodian Sapphires are sometimes slightly dark. Australian Sapphires tend to have green overtones and concentric hexagonal bands.

Next: Valuing Sapphires

Buy Your Sapphire with Peace of Mind at

Loose Sapphire gems

Jewelry with Sapphire

[Sapphire Page 1 ][Sapphire Page 3 ][Sapphire Page 4 ]

See Also:

Products with Sapphire

Therapeutic Properties of Sapphire

Gemstone Infocenter Home

Gift Selections incorporating Gemstones

Guide to Caring for Gemstones

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